Application layout guide
By: JJ Allaire
Shiny includes a number of facilities for laying out the components of an application. This guide describes the following application layout features:
The simple default layout with a sidebar for inputs and a large main area for output.
Custom application layouts using the Shiny grid layout system.
Segmenting layouts using the
Creating applications with multiple top-level components using the
These features were implemented using the layout features available in Bootstrap 2, an extremely popular HTML/CSS framework (though no prior experience with Bootstrap is assumed).
The sidebar layout is a useful starting point for most applications. This layout provides a sidebar for inputs and a large main area for output:
Here’s the code used to create this layout:
Note that the sidebar can be positioned to the left (the default) or right of the main area. For example, to position the sidebar to the right you would use this code:
sidebarLayout() described above makes use of Shiny’s lower-level grid layout functions. Rows are created by the
fluidRow() function and include columns defined by the
column() function. Column widths are based on the Bootstrap 12-wide grid system, so should add up to 12 within a
To illustrate, here’s the sidebar layout implemented using the
The first parameter to the
column() function is it’s width (out of a total of 12 columns). It’s also possible to offset the position of columns to achieve more precise control over the location of UI elements. You can move columns to the right by adding the
offset parameter to the
column() function. Each unit of offset increases the left-margin of a column by a whole column.
Here’s an example of a UI with a plot at the top and three columns at the bottom that contain the inputs that drive the plot:
The code required to implement this UI is as follows:
There are a few important things to note here:
The inputs are at the bottom and broken into three columns of varying widths.
offsetparameter is used on the center input column to provide custom spacing between the first and second columns.
The page doesn’t include a
titlePanel()so the title is specified as an explicit argument to
Grid layouts can be used anywhere within a
fluidPage() and can even be nested within each other. You can find out more about grid layouts in the Grid Layouts in Depth section below.
Often applications need to subdivide their user-interface into discrete sections. This can be accomplished using the
tabsetPanel() function. For example:
The code required to create this UI is:
Tabs can be located above (the default), below, left, or to the right of tab content. For example, to position the tabs below the tab content you would use this code:
When you have more than a handful of tabPanels the
navlistPanel() may be a good alternative to
tabsetPanel(). A navlist presents the various components as a sidebar list rather than using tabs. It also supports section heading and separators for longer lists. Here’s an example of a
The code required to implement this is as follows (note that the tabPanels are empty to keep the example uncluttered, typically they’d include additional UI elements):
You may want to create a Shiny application that consists of multiple distinct sub-components (each with their own sidebar, tabsets, or other layout constructs). The
navbarPage() function creates an application with a standard Bootstrap Navbar at the top. For example:
Note that the Shiny
tabPanel() is used to specify the navigable components.
You can add a second level of navigation to the page by using the
navbarMenu() function. This adds a menu to the top level navbar which can in turn refer to additional tabPanels.
There are several other arguments to
navbarPage() that provide additional measures of customization:
|header||Tag of list of tags to display as a common header above all tabPanels.|
|footer||Tag or list of tags to display as a common footer below all tabPanels|
Grid Layouts in Depth
There are two types of Bootstrap grids, fluid and fixed. The examples so far have used the fluid grid system exclusively and that’s the system that’s recommended for most applications (and the default for Shiny functions like
Both grid systems use a flexibly sub-dividable 12-column grid for layout. The fluid system always occupies the full width of the web page and re-sizes it’s components dynamically as the size of the page changes. The fixed system occupies a fixed width of 940 pixels by default and may assume other widths when Bootstrap responsive layout kicks in (e.g. when on a tablet).
The following sections are a translation of the official Bootstrap 2 grid system documentation, with HTML code replaced by R code.
Fluid Grid System
The Bootstrap grid system utilizes 12 columns which can be flexibly subdivided into rows and columns. To create a layout based on the fluid system you use the
fluidPage() function. To create rows within the grid you use the
fluidRow() function; to create columns within rows you use the
For example, consider this high level page layout (the numbers displayed are columns out of a total of 12):
To create this layout in a Shiny application you’d use the following code (note that the column widths within the fluid row add up to 12):
It’s also possible to offset the position of columns to achieve more precise control over the location of UI elements. Move columns to the right by adding the
offset parameter to the
column() function. Each unit of offset increases the left-margin of a column by a whole column. Consider this layout:
To create this layout in a Shiny application you’d using the following code:
When you nest columns within a fluid grid, each nested level of columns should add up to 12 columns. This is because the fluid grid uses percentages, not pixels, for setting widths. Consider this page layout:
To create this layout in a Shiny application you’d use the following code:
Note that each time a
fluidRow() is introduced the columns within the row add up to 12.
Fixed Grid System
The fixed grid system also utilizes 12 columns, and maintains a fixed width of 940 pixels by default. If Bootstrap responsive features are enabled (they are by default in Shiny) then the grid will also adapt to be 724px or 1170px wide depending on your viewport (e.g. when on a tablet).
The main benefit of a fixed grid is that it provides stronger guarantees about how users will see the various elements of your UI laid out (this is because it’s not being dynamically laid out according to the width of the browser). The main drawback is that it’s a bit more complex to work with. In general we recommend using fluid grids unless you absolutely require the lower level layout control afforded by a fixed grid.
Using Fixed Grids
Using fixed grids in Shiny works almost identically to fluid grids. Here are the differences to keep in mind:
You use the
fixedRow()functions to build the grid.
Rows can nest, but should always include a set of columns that add up to the number of columns of their parent (rather than resetting to 12 at each nesting level as they do in fluid grids).
Here’s the code for a fixed grid version of the simple sidebar layout shown earlier:
In fixed grids the width of each nested column must add up to the number of columns in their parent. Here’s a
fixedRow() with a 9-wide column that contains two other columns of width 6 and 3:
The create this row within a Shiny application you’d use the following code:
Note that the total size of the nested columns is 9, the same as their parent column.
The Bootstrap grid system supports responsive CSS, which enables your application to automatically adapt its layout for viewing on different sized devices. Responsive layout includes the following:
- Modifying the width of columns in the grid
- Stack elements instead of float wherever necessary
- Resize headings and text to be more appropriate for devices
Responsive layout is enabled by default for all Shiny page types. To disable responsive layout you should pass
responsive = FALSE to the
When responsive layout is enabled here is how the Bootstrap grid system adapts to various devices:
|Layout width||Column width||Gutter width|
|Large display||1200px and up||70px||30px|
|Default||980px and up||60px||20px|
|Portrait tablets||768px and above||42px||20px|
|Phones to tablets||767px and below||Fluid (no fixed widths)||Fluid (no fixed widths)|
|Phones||480px and below||Fluid (no fixed widths)||Fluid (no fixed widths)|
Note that on smaller screen sizes fluid columns widths are used automatically even if the page uses fixed grid layout.
Shiny applications inherit the default visual theme of the Bootstrap web framework upon which Shiny is based. If you want to change the look of your application it’s possible to specify an alternate Bootstrap theme. You can do this using the
theme parameter to the
navbarPage() function, which specifies an alternative Bootstrap CSS stylesheet to use for the application.
Bootstrap themes are typically specified using a single CSS source file (although it’s possible for them to have associated images, css, or fonts as well). If you’ve saved a theme at the location
www/bootstrap.css within your application directory then you would link it in using this code:
When importing a theme it’s important to make sure that it’s compatible with Bootstrap 3. One popular source of Bootstrap themes is Bootswatch, but there are many others.
If you have questions about this article or would like to discuss ideas presented here, please post on RStudio Community. Our developers monitor these forums and answer questions periodically. See help for more help with all things Shiny.