Build a user interface
Now that you understand the structure of a Shiny app, it’s time to build your first app from scratch.
This lesson will show you how to build a user interface for your app. You will learn how to lay out the user interface and then add text, images, and other HTML elements to your Shiny app.
We’ll use the
App-1 app you made in Lesson 1. To get started, open its
app.R file. Edit the script to match the one below:
This code is the bare minimum needed to create a Shiny app. The result is an empty app with a blank user interface, an appropriate starting point for this lesson.
Shiny uses the function
fluidPage to create a display that automatically adjusts to the dimensions of your user’s browser window. You lay out the user interface of your app by placing elements in the
For example, the
ui function below creates a user interface that has a title panel and a sidebar layout, which includes a sidebar panel and a main panel. Note that these elements are placed within the
sidebarLayout are the two most popular elements to add to
fluidPage. They create a basic Shiny app with a sidebar.
sidebarLayout always takes two arguments:
These functions place content in either the sidebar or the main panels.
The sidebar panel will appear on the left side of your app by default. You can move it to the right side by giving
sidebarLayout the optional argument
position = "right".
sidebarLayout create a basic layout for your Shiny app, but you can also create more advanced layouts. You can use
navbarPage to give your app a multi-page user interface that includes a navigation bar. Or you can use
column to build your layout up from a grid system. If you’d like to learn more about these advanced options, read the Shiny Application Layout Guide. We will stick with
sidebarLayout in this tutorial.
You can add content to your Shiny app by placing it inside a
*Panel function. For example, the apps above display a character string in each of their panels. The words “sidebar panel” appear in the sidebar panel, because we added the string to the
sidebarPanel function, e.g.
sidebarPanel("sidebar panel"). The same is true for the text in the title panel and the main panel.
To add more advanced content, use one of Shiny’s HTML tag functions. These functions parallel common HTML5 tags. Let’s try out a few of them.
|shiny function||HTML5 equivalent||creates|
||A paragraph of text|
||A first level header|
||A second level header|
||A third level header|
||A fourth level header|
||A fifth level header|
||A sixth level header|
||A hyper link|
||A line break (e.g. a blank line)|
||A division of text with a uniform style|
||An in-line division of text with a uniform style|
||Text ‘as is’ in a fixed width font|
||A formatted block of code|
||Directly passes a character string as HTML code|
To create a header element:
select a header function (e.g., h1 or h5)
give it the text you want to see in the header
For example, you can create a first level header that says “My title” with
h1("My title"). If you run the command at the command line, you’ll notice that it produces HTML code.
> library(shiny) > h1("My title") <h1>My title</h1>
To place the element in your app:
h1("My title")as an argument to
The text will appear in the corresponding panel of your web page. You can place multiple elements in the same panel if you separate them with a comma.
Give this a try. The new script below uses all six levels of headers. Update your
ui.R to match the script and then relaunch your app. Remember to relaunch a Shiny app you may run
runApp("App-1"), click the Run App button, or use your keyboard shortcuts.
Now your app should look like this.
If George Lucas had a first app, it might look like this.
You can create this effect with
align = "center", as in
h6("Episode IV", align = "center"). In general, any HTML tag attribute can be set as an argument in any Shiny tag function.
If you are unfamiliar with HTML tag attributes, you can look them up in one of the many free online HTML resources such as w3schools.
Here’s the code for the
ui that made the Star Wars-inspired user interface:
Shiny offers many tag functions for formatting text. The easiest way to describe them is by running through an example.
ui object below into your
app.R file and save it. If your Shiny app is still running, you can refresh your web page or preview window, and it will display the changes. If your app is closed, just relaunch it.
Compare the displayed app to your updated
ui object definition to discover how to format text in a Shiny app.
Images can enhance the appearance of your app and help your users understand the content. Shiny looks for the
img function to place image files in your app.
To insert an image, give the
img function the name of your image file as the
src argument (e.g.,
img(src = "my_image.png")). You must spell out this argument since
img passes your input to an HTML tag, and
src is what the tag expects.
You can also include other HTML friendly parameters such as height and width. Note that height and width numbers will refer to pixels.
img function looks for your image file in a specific place. Your file must be in a folder named
www in the same directory as the
app.R script. Shiny treats this directory in a special way. Shiny will share any file placed here with your user’s web browser, which makes
www a great place to put images, style sheets, and other things the browser will need to build the wep components of your Shiny app.
So if you want to use an image named rstudio.png, your
App-1 directory should look like this one:
With this file arrangment, the
ui object below can create this app. Download rstudio.png here and try it out.
This lesson covers the most popular Shiny tag functions, but there are many more tag functions for you to use. You can learn about additional tag functions in Customize your UI with HTML and the Shiny HTML Tags Glossary.
You can use Shiny’s layout, HTML, and
img functions to create very attractive and useful user interfaces. See how well you understand these functions by recreating the Shiny app pictured below. Use the examples in this tutorial to work on it and then test it out.
app.R script is found under the Model Answer button, but don’t just copy and paste it. Make sure you understand how the code works before moving on.
With your new skills, you can:
create a user interface with
create an HTML element with one of Shiny’s tag functions
set HTML tag attributes in the arguments of each tag function
add an element to your web page by passing it to
add multiple elements to each panel by separating them with a comma
add images by placing your image in a folder labeled
wwwwithin your Shiny app directory and then calling the
Now that you can place simple content in your user interface, let’s look at how you would place more complicated content, like widgets. Widgets are interactive web elements that your user can use to control the app. They are also the subject of Lesson 3.
If you have questions about this article or would like to discuss ideas presented here, please post on RStudio Community. Our developers monitor these forums and answer questions periodically. See help for more help with all things Shiny.